ADP-heptose activates the protein kinase ALPK1 triggering TIFA phosphorylation at Thr9, the recruitment of TRAF6 and the subsequent production of inflammatory mediators. Here, we demonstrate that ADP-heptose also stimulates the formation of Lys63- and Met1-linked ubiquitin chains to activate the TAK1 and canonical IKK complexes, respectively. We further show that the E3 ligases TRAF6 and c-IAP1 operate redundantly to generate the Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains required for pathway activation, which we demonstrate are attached to TRAF6, TRAF2 and c-IAP1, and that c-IAP1 is recruited to TIFA by TRAF2. ADP-heptose also induces activation of the kinase TBK1 by a TAK1-independent mechanism, which require TRAF2 and TRAF6. We establish that ALPK1 phosphorylates TIFA directly at Thr177 as well as Thr9 in vitro. Thr177 is located within the TRAF6-binding motif and its mutation to Asp prevents TRAF6 but not TRAF2 binding, indicating a role in restricting ADP-heptose signalling. We conclude that ADP-heptose signalling is controlled by the combined actions of TRAF2/c-IAP1 and TRAF6.
Snelling, T., Shpiro, N., Gourlay, R., Lamoliatte, F. and Cohen, P